REPORT: Name and Image on Two Codex-style Vessels

by David Stuart

Among the many images in Justin Kerr’s wondrous database of Maya vases are two codex style vessels, K1552 and K1647 (Figures 1 and 2). These are part of a much larger set of vessels that bear symbols and iconography inspired by Teotihuacan, including images of so-called war-serpents and “Tlalocs” (see Robiscek and Hales 1981: Tables 5, 6, 7, 15, and 16). Many of these look to be painted by the same artist, including the two pictured here.

Rollout of Kerr 1552, showing jaguar paw and fire elements flanking a central k'an cross, in pseudo-Teotihuacan style. Photograph by Justin Kerr.
Figure 1. Rollout of Kerr 1552, showing jaguar paw and fire elements flanking a central k’an cross, in pseudo-Teotihuacan style. Photograph by Justin Kerr.
Rollout of Kerr 1647, showing two pseudo-Teotihuacan figures with jaguar paw and flame elements. Photograph by Justin Kerr.
Figure 2. Rollout of Kerr 1647, showing two pseudo-Teotihuacan figures with jaguar paw and flame elements. Photograph by Justin Kerr.

Compared those many vessels the imagery on K1152 and K1647 stands out. We see repeating ornate designs exhibiting k’an crosses, “fans” and other elements that commonly are used to evoke a Teotihuacan style in Late Classic Maya art (I suspect many of these elements have origins in butterfly imagery — another frequent theme of Early Classic central Mexican iconography). The design of K1152 is somewhat simpler than on K1647, where a human figure is added to the mix. He wears a so-called “tassled headdress” — here a rare Late Classic depiction — that is a familiar feature of Teotihuacan warriors throughout Mesoamerican art (Millon 1988).

Two elements seem to be featured in the repeating iconographic assemblages on each vessel — a protruding jaguar paw to the left of each design, and a prominent set of curving flames to the right. It’s an odd combination that doesn’t find parallel in the repetoire of Maya or Teotihuacan iconography, as far as I’m aware. But the paw and the flames are otherwise familiar as hieroglyphic elements that spell the core component of the royal name Yuknoom Yich’aak K’ahk’, who ruled at Calakmul as the king of the Kaanal (or Kaanul) kingdom from to 686 to 697 CE. In truncated examples his name is simply written with a jaguar paw (ICH’AAK) and fire (K’AHK’), for Yich’aak K’ahk’, “Claw of Fire” (the phonetic prefix yi- in Figure 3d provides the prevocalic possessive pronoun y-).

FIgure 3. Name variants of the Calakmul ruler Yuknoom Yich'aak K'ahk'. (Drawings a and b by David Stuart; c and d by Simon Martin).
FIgure 3. Name variants of the Calakmul ruler Yuknoom Yich’aak K’ahk’. (Drawings a and b by David Stuart; c and d by Simon Martin).

I have to wonder if the icons on the two related vessels are symbolic references to this important Calakmul king. Could the profiles shown on K1647 be his portrait? Throughout Maya art royal names could be routinely displayed in a similar fashion, where the elements of script often assumed the appearance of iconography. We often find such names in headdresses, for example, where the lines between image and script seem almost completely blurred (a playful overlap that Maya scribes and artists were apparently trained to feature and exploit).

The connection of these vases to Calakmul goes well beyond any strained visual link. It’s now firmly established that these and other codex-style vessels were produced in the so-called Mirador “Basin” (a geographical misnomer) at centers such as Nakbe, which were evidently in the close political sphere of Calakmul (Reents-Budet, et. al. 2010). The stylistic allusions to Teotihuacan are suggestive as well. According to a two different references in the inscriptions of La Corona, Yich’aak K’ahk’ assumed the unusual title Waxaklajuun Ubaah Chan, a name otherwise closely associated with the so-called Teotihuacan War Serpent. These can be found on Stela 1 and on Block V of Hieroglyphic Stairway 2 (Figure 4). The title probably alludes to Yich’aak K’ahk’s importance as a powerful warrior during a time he was warring with Calakmul’s great southern rival Tikal.

FIgure 4. Teotihuacan War Serpent title with the name of Yuknoom Yich'aak K'ahk', from Block 5 of Hieroglyphic Stairway 2 at La Corona. (Drawing by David Stuart)
Figure 4. The Teotihuacan War Serpent title with the name of Yuknoom Yich’aak K’ahk’, from Block 5 of Hieroglyphic Stairway 2 at La Corona. (Drawing by David Stuart)

The timing for such a personal reference seems about right, too, for many if not most codex-style ceramics appear to have been produced in a relatively short span of a few decades in the late seventh and early eight centuries.

Readers might wonder why I haven’t addressed what the line of glyphs on the vessels actually say. The texts below the rims of the two vessels are nearly identical. Both are standard dedicatory formulae, marking them as drinking cups for cacao, and owned by a k’uhul cha(?)tahn winik, a “holy person” of place or court named Cha(?)tahn (the reading of one of the signs as cha in this context is uncertain; I suspect it may be a logogram of unknown value, and not the syllable sign cha). This may be an indirect reference to a character named Yopaat Bahlam, who carries this same title and is named on many codex style vessels. I suspect, as others probably have, that he was a local ruler of the Late Classic settlement at Nakbe or somewhere nearby, as well as being a subordinate ally under Calakmul’s power.

So in sum, I tentatively suggest that the two vases shown may have been painted ca. 690 CE to commemorate Calakmul’s warrior-king Yuknoom Yich’aak K’ahk’. Their decorations look to be personal references to that k’uhul ajaw — emblem-like name glyphs melded with iconographic allusions to Teotihuacan. It’s probably significant that the writing system that was actually used at Teotihuacan consisted of proper names written in a similar emblematic manner (Taube 2000). The painter of these two vessels may have wanted to show the king’s name using a mix of Teotihuacan and Maya styles, not unlike the glyphs rendered in the Teotihuacan “font” in the Temple Inscription from Temple 26 at Copan (Stuart 2005).


Millon, Clara. 1988. “A reexamination of the Teotihuacan tassel headdress insignia.” In Feathered Serpents and Flowering Trees: Reconstructing the Murals of Teotihuacan, edited by Kathleen Berrin, pp. 114-134. The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco.

Reents-Budet, Dorie, Sylviane Boucher Le Landais, Yoly Paloma Carillo, Ronald L. Bishop and M. James Blackman. 2010. Codex Style Ceramics: New Data Concerning Patterns of Production and Distribution. Paper presented at the XXIV Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatamala, 2010, Guatemala City.

Stuart, David. 2005. A Foreign Past: The Writing and Representation of History on A Royal Ancestral Shrine at Copan.  In Copan: The History of An Ancient Maya Kingdom, edited by E. Wyllys Andrews and William L. Fash.  pp. 373-394.  The School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.

Taube, Karl. 2000. The Writing System of Ancient Teotihuacan. Ancient America I. Center for Ancient American Studies, Barnardsville, NC and Washington, DC.

3 thoughts on “REPORT: Name and Image on Two Codex-style Vessels

  1. Luís Lopes August 21, 2013 / 9:10 PM

    Hi David,

    Very interesting discussion. Among the many codex style vessels that name Yop’aat Bahlam, in K1560 the DF refers to him as a /4 winikhaab ajaw/. This title is also seen in K2226 where the owner of the vessel is said to be /u mijiin 4 winikhaab ajaw/. I suspect that this is the same Yop’aat Bahlam from K1560. His son is also named in K2226 and many other codex style vessels, is named perhaps /timaj took(al) k’awiil/ (“the sparking k’awiil is pleased” – there are several spellings of the name and this is just one possibility). K8498 names /timaj took k’awiil/ as a /ch’ok/ person. This is actually interesting as it suggests a dynastic line. Both individuals carry the /k’uhul chatan winik sak wayis/ title.

  2. karenbassie September 3, 2013 / 12:50 AM

    This is in regard to your comment about butterflies. In a recent paper, I have argued that Tlaloc had a number of avatars including a jaguar, owl, Black Witch Moth and the 18 Ub’aah Chan serpent. The close association between Tlaloc and the 18 Ubaah Chan is seen in the Copan Structure 10L-26 example where the leg of Tlaloc is represented by the 18 Ubaah Chan. The Classic Maya depicted Tlaloc in a skeletal form with round goggle-like eyes, E-shaped nose element, k’an cross earrings and a headdress that includes a so-called Central Mexican year sign such as the Tlaloc mask and headdress worn by the ruler on Dos Pilas Stela 2. The E-shaped nose element of the Tlaloc mask is an obsidian eccentric, and such examples have been found in excavations. Tlaloc is intimately associated with obsidian and obsidian weapons. For example, the Piedras Negras and Dos Pilas rulers dressed as Tlaloc carry obsidian weapons and are decked out in obsidian imagery.
    Lepidoptera is the order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. Yaxchilan Lintel 8 and Lintel 41 illustrate Bird Jaguar dressed as a Tlaloc with Lepidoptera features. Illustrations of Lepidopteran Tlalocs often have wings with scalloped edges such as seen on the Tlaloc headdress held by a secondary lord on the Houston Museum of Fine Arts panel. The base of these wings frequently has a zigzag design that is used at Teotihuacán and in the Maya region to represent obsidian. The Lepidopteran Tlaloc has traditionally been identified as a butterfly, but there is significant evidence that it was based on a Black Witch Moth (Ascalapha odorata). The huge Black Witch Moth (17 cm wing span) has wings with scalloped edges and a zigzag pattern ( The tip of a Black Witch Moth’s hind wing is decorated with E-shaped motifs that are similar to Tlaloc’s E-shaped obsidian nose element while its upper wing has a motif similar to the T712 obsidian bloodletter. A ubiquitous belief found across all of Mesoamerica is that the appearance of a Black Witch moth inside a house is an omen that a member of the household will become ill or die. This fear of the Black Witch Moth is reflected in its Aztec name micpapalotl or miquipapalotl “death moth”, and its Ch’ol name pejpem xib’aj “moth demon”. A warrior king dressed in the costume of a Black Witch Moth Tlaloc such as Bird Jaguar would certainly have sent a powerful death message to his opponents. In the same regard, there are numerous examples of Tlalocs with owl attributes such as the owl headdress on Piedras Negras Stela 9, and another pervasive Mesoamerican belief is that owls are omens of death. These rulers were literally dressed to kill.
    I would suggest that the K1552 and K1647 motifs are truncated illustrations of Yich’aak K’ahk’ in his role as a Tlaloc deity.